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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Aggressive tactics to avoid condom use were measured using an adapted version of the revised Sexual Experiences Survey, and a variety of aggressive behaviors spanning coercion to physical force were assessed.

Adult seeking casual sex Washington DC 20010 hundred participants Structural equation modeling indicated that attitudes toward women, inconsistent condom use, and of sexual partners were ificant predictors of aggressive tactics to avoid condom use. A better understanding of the attitudinal and behavioral pathways through which men avoid condom use through aggressive and coercive means will ultimately result in improved education and prevention efforts for at-risk men and women. Sexual assault may adversely affect a woman's physical and mental health in a variety of ways, including negative sexual and reproductive health consequences.

Empirical research investigating the factors that may increase the likelihood of these negative consequences for sexual assault victims would further inform efforts to reduce these harmful outcomes. The use of a condom during penetrative sexual assault, as during consensual sexual situations, can decrease the risk of both STI transmission and unwanted pregnancies.

For example, Davis et al. This nonuse of condoms during rape may be more likely than unprotected consensual sex to result in STI transmission because of the higher likelihood of vaginal tissue injury in sexual assault incidents Briere, Moreover, because men who report engaging in sexual or physical violence against women also report more sexual partners for example, of partners in the last year, one-night stands and inconsistent or no condom use during consensual vaginal and anal sexual intercourse, they present an elevated STI transmission risk to their victims Peterson et al.

Compared with non-perpetrators, men who had ly committed sexual assault reported greater justification for using coercive tactics to obtain unprotected sex in a hypothetical situation Abbey et al. To date, these studies have used laboratory-based experimental methods. The present study uses survey methods to assess the frequency and predictors of young men's use of sexually aggressive and coercive tactics to obtain unprotected sex.

Malamuth et al.

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On the basis of this model, we predicted three primary pathways to condom avoidance through aggressive and coercive tactics. First, we hypothesized that men's negative attitudes toward women would directly predict their use of aggressive strategies to obtain unprotected sex. Second, we hypothesized that impersonal sex factors, such as inconsistent condom use and more sex partners, would directly predict use of aggression and coercion to avoid condom use and would also correlate with each other, consistent with prior research Peterson et al.

Third, in accordance with the original model, we predicted that men who report a high degree of both negative attitudes toward women and impersonal sex factors would also report the greatest use of aggression and coercion to obtain unprotected sex. Thus, we tested whether the interactions between these factors would ificantly predict use of aggression to avoid condom use. Because the original confluence model was deed to predict sexual aggression generally and not sexual aggression specific to condom avoidance, we expanded the model to include factors ly shown to be relevant to factors regarding condom use.

Thus, we hypothesized that the relationship between sexual sensation seeking and the use of aggression to obtain unprotected sex would be mediated by the impersonal sex factor of of sex partners. We thus hypothesized that the relationship between attitudes about condoms interfering with sexual pleasure and use of aggressive strategies to obtain unprotected sex would be mediated by the inconsistent use of condoms generally. The hypothesized pathways are depicted in Figure 1. Following institutional review board approval, survey advertisements were posted nationwide on Facebook and on Craigslist.

Unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 35 who endorsed primarily heterosexual dating experiences and some social drinking were considered eligible to participate. The survey was delivered through the University of Washington's WebQ, an online survey software program. Participants were assured of confidentiality and given the option to decline any question.

A total of 1, individuals completed the online screening information form. Of those, were excluded because they were married, reported only homosexual experiences, were over the age cutoff, or were female. Two hundred ninety-nine participants completed the survey. Of these, 10 additional cases were dropped because their answers provided in the survey did not match those given in the screening for example, screened in as eligible but later reported being marriedresulting in a final sample Adult seeking casual sex Washington DC 20010 of Of the sample, The sample was moderately ethnically diverse: For racial identification, The specific ages of participants were not recorded due to an error in the survey interface, but all were between the ages of 18 and Attitudes toward women were measured in three ways.

In the present study, scores were reversed such that higher values indicate more negative attitudes about the effects of condoms on sexual pleasure. Categorizing responses in this way helps to address both skew and recall difficulties for participants. The measure for sexual aggression reflects two components—acts and tactics—and was deed to assess an increased level of behavioral specificity and to capture the full spectrum of unwanted sex from coercive to forced.

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Respondents were asked about five tactics: 1 arguments or pressure; 2 lies or false promises; 3 guilt, sulking, or anger; 4 intoxication of the victim; and 5 some degree of physical force. All data were cleaned and prepared using SPSS To examine the relations among the variables and to test the hypothesized model, structural equation modeling SEM was used with the Mplus statistical package for Windows version 6. The original model shown in Figure 1 was tested first, and nonificant paths were removed. The modification indices were then examined for needed changes.

To avoid using condoms, We used SEM with maximum likelihood estimation to test the model shown in Figure 1. The two-way interactions between attitudes toward women and inconsistent condom use and attitudes toward women and of partners were tested by entering mean-centered multiplicative terms Cronbach, However, the latent variable formed through hostility to women, adversarial heterosexual beliefs, and rape myth attitudes was satisfactory loadings were 0.

Nonificant paths, such as those for the interaction terms, were removed from the model. After examining the modification indices, one additional path was added from sexual sensation seeking to inconsistent condom use. Three variables had ificant direct effects on condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression: inconsistent condom use, of partners, and attitudes toward women.

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The ificance of the three indirect pathways to condom avoidance through sexual aggression were tested as per Bryan, Schmiege, and Broaddus ; all three pathways were ificant. To our knowledge, this exploratory study represents one of the first examinations of the factors predictive of young men's use of aggressive and coercive tactics to obtain sex without a condom. Based on the confluence model of sexual aggression Malamuth et al.

We found that just over one-third of young men in this nationwide sample reported having used coercion or aggression to avoid using a condom since the age of 14, with As in studies of sexual assault perpetration Abbey et al. Although other studies have noted a global relationship between young men's sexual violence perpetration and inconsistent condom use Peterson et al.

Laboratory-based studies have noted that some men report intention to use sexually aggressive tactics to obtain unprotected sex Davis, ; our findings extend this work by substantiating that a ificant minority of young men actually obtain unprotected sex through the use of coercive or violent tactics. Our study findings supported our hypotheses, suggesting three primary pathways to young men's use of coercion to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse.

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In support of the original confluence model, the first pathway indicated that greater endorsement of negative attitudes toward women was directly associated with higher rates of coerced unprotected sex. The second pathway demonstrated that condom displeasure attitudes were related to greater inconsistent condom use, which in turn was related to greater use of aggressive tactics to obtain unprotected sex.

Finally, in the third set of pathways, sexual sensation seeking was related to inconsistent condom use and a higher of sexual partners, each of which was associated with a greater likelihood of using coercion to obtain unprotected sex. Our hypothesis that the combination of negative attitudes toward women and impersonal sex factors would predict the greatest use of aggression to obtain unprotected sex was not supported.

The lack of ificance of the interaction terms, which is central to the confluence model, may be due to a of factors. First, the outcome variable studied here is different than that of the original model; therefore expectation of an interaction may not apply. Instead, aggression to avoid condom use may be used by distinctly different types of men, reflective of the three separate pathways. However, it is possible that having two separate interaction terms may have diluted the predicted effects, although each was tested separately and both were nonificant.

Our findings show that negative attitudes toward women are directly related to more frequent use of aggression to obtain unprotected sex. Thus, a more traditional masculine ideology that supports more negative attitudes toward women may contribute to men's use of sexual coercion to obtain unprotected sex, thereby increasing women's risk of both sexual victimization and sexual infection transmission.

Men's attitudes about the effects of condoms on sexual pleasure indirectly related to increased engagement in coerced unprotected sex through its association with more inconsistent condom use. A novel finding in our study is that this infrequent Adult seeking casual sex Washington DC 20010 use is also associated with the use of coercive tactics to avoid using condoms. This result suggests that prevention programming that targets men's attitudes about condom's effects on sexual pleasure may be an effective means of increasing condom use generally and decreasing the use of aggression and coercion in risky sexual situations.

Sexual sensation seeking was ificantly related to both inconsistent condom use and greater s of sexual partners. The current research expands the work in this area by demonstrating that men who use condoms inconsistently and have more sex partners are also more likely to use coercion and aggression for the purposes of obtaining unprotected sex. These indicate that focusing prevention efforts toward those with greater sexual sensation seeking tendencies—and then tailoring these programs to meet their specific needs—may ultimately have larger effects on STI transmission than would more general programs Hendershot et al.

A major limitation of our study was the use of a cross-sectional de, which precludes our ability to make causal statements about the relationships among the variables investigated. Future research examining these constructs in a longitudinal fashion or in an experimental setting to ascertain potential causal relationships is highly warranted. We relied solely on self-reported data, which, although one of the best methods to study sexual aggression given the low rates of reporting Bureau of Justice,is nonetheless subject to errors in recall and social desirability biases.

That noted, data were provided anonymously, which somewhat reduces this concern, and this bias would have likely resulted in underreporting, not overreporting, of risky sexual behavior and sexual coercion perpetration. Although the sample size was not large, the ificant effects observed suggest that it was sufficiently powered. In addition, algorithms that have been developed to predict minimum sample size requirements suggest that our sample size was adequate to test this model Westland, Moreover, as with any study involving a sample of convenience, self-selection bias may occur.

Generalizing these findings to other groups should thus be done cautiously. Finally, our measure of condom use avoidance does not allow for the disentangling of situations that culminated in a sexual assault from those that involved the woman's consent. Future research should explore the interplay of men's condom use avoidance tactics with women's provision or refusal of sexual consent. Just over one-third of young heterosexual men in this sample reported use of aggressive tactics to avoid use of condoms with their female sexual partners, and the majority of those reported multiple incidents.

Men high in sexual sensation seeking, with more negative attitudes about women and with stronger beliefs that condoms reduce sexual pleasure, were the most likely Adult seeking casual sex Washington DC 20010 engage in this type of behavior. These findings suggest that, despite prevention efforts directed at reducing sexual aggression and sexual risk, many young men continue to engage in both of these behaviors, often within the same sexual incident. A woman who has been coerced into having unprotected sexual intercourse has not only experienced a violation of her sexual autonomy, but also may subsequently be at increased risk for unwanted pregnancy and STI transmission.

The successful application of a theoretical model for sexual assault suggests ificant overlap with risk factors and pathways to aggressive tactics to avoid condom use. Prevention and intervention programs for sexual assault are thus well positioned to address these problems simultaneously by addressing the pathways illustrated in the confluence model. As this exploratory study makes clear, further empirical research that advances our understanding regarding the intersection of sexual aggression and sexual risk are imperative for informing sexual health prevention efforts.

There are several critical avenues for future research. First, given the selection bias of this study, these findings should be replicated with other samples in other settings, ideally using prospective methods. Second, future research could address the roles of relationship factors like type and length, as well as partner characteristics, because these factors may have implications for the perceived importance of condom use to some men.

Finally, women's perceptions of sexual encounters involving men's use of aggressive tactics to avoid use of condoms would also be an important area for future research.

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National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Soc Work Res. Published online Sep Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. This research was supported by grants to K. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use.

Keywords: condom avoidance, confluence model, risky sexual behavior, sexual aggression. Open in a separate window. Figure Measures Attitudes toward women were measured in three ways. Table 1: Correlations among Study Variables. Condom displeasure attitudes — 2. Hostility toward women. Adversarial heterosexual beliefs.

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Rape myth attitudes. Sexual sensation seeking. Inconsistent condom use.

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of partners. Condom avoidance through sexual aggression. Limitations A major limitation of our study was the use of a cross-sectional de, which precludes our ability to make causal statements about the relationships among the variables investigated. Conclusion Just over one-third of young heterosexual men in this sample reported use of aggressive tactics to avoid use of condoms with their female sexual partners, and the majority of those reported multiple incidents.

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Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model