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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The article discusses a study conducted between December and March that involved 19 gender-stratified focus groups with African American parents and adolescents from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, to explore the process and content of parent—adolescent communication about sex.

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Discussions about intimate partner violence IPV and healthy relationships emerge inductively as critical topics in these conversations. The authors use a grounded theory approach to content analysis to identify and organize themes related to discussions on these topics. A total of participants from 52 families are recruited for the study. Family history of child sexual abuse often motivates discussions. Mothers are described as the primary parent discussing sexual issues with children. Fathers primarily role model ideal male partnership behavior for sons and daughters.

Parents seek to prevent daughters from experiencing sexual abuse or emotional manipulation by partners and focus on instilling a sense of responsibility to and respect for romantic partners Ladies wants sex Eaton sons. Mothers and fathers approach this process differently. Intimate partner violence IPV is a ificant public health problem. Approximately 1. Estimates of the epidemiology of TDV vary depending on the source. Adolescent and young adult women are most affected. The National Crime Victimization Survey revealed that for self-reported rates of IPV among women aged 16 to 24 years of age were among the highest for all age and gender groups Catalano, Families are an important influence on adolescent dating violence prevention.

Although a substantial body of literature has examined how families communicate about sexual health issues Aspy et al.

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In this article, we explore how urban African American families discuss IPV and healthy relationships. These data were obtained as part of a larger study that examined the process and content of parent—adolescent communication about sex in urban African American families. Our goal was to use this information to develop an intervention to improve family communication about sex and to improve dating and sexual health outcomes among adolescents in the target community. We focused on African American families because African American adolescents initiate sex at an early age Eaton, et al.

Discussions about IPV and healthy relationship emerged as a critical topic of conversation Ladies wants sex Eaton families. This analysis explores the nature of those discussions. Between December and Marchwe conducted focus groups with African American families from Allegheny County in western Pennsylvania. Families were invited to attend one study session where they participated in a focus group and completed a questionnaire.

Eligible families self-identified as African American, and at least one adolescent aged 15 to 17 and one biological parent or legal guardians agreed to participate. Our IRB required that parent participants be biological parents or legal guardian. To reach eligible African American families across the entire county, we used several strategies.

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We posted flyers in public libraries, community centers, social service organizations, and community- and university-based clinics. We advertised in city newspapers, church newsletters, and on CraigsList. Flyers and mailings stated we were conducting a study about how parents and adolescents talk about sex. Parents provided written informed consent for themselves and provided consent their participating children.

Adolescents provided written informed assent for themselves. Participants were aware of the survey content, although parents were not aware teens would be asked their sexual history. Participants completed surveys in a large conference room seated at a distance from one another to ensure confidentiality. Each group had an average of 6 participants range: and lasted 1. We pilot tested our protocol in two mixed-gender focus groups, one for parents, and one for adolescents.

Thereafter, we conducted 19 focus groups that were separate for parents and adolescents of each gender. Groups were held on five dates with four focus groups held simultaneously one each for mothers, fathers, adolescent males, and adolescent females to allow all members of a family to complete participation at once.

Five groups were held for mothers, five for fathers, and four each for adolescent males and females. A fifth adolescent group was mixed-gender because only one male attended, and the adolescent females invited him to their discussion. Each discussion was facilitated by two moderators; one led the discussion while the other took detailed notes and operated the audio-recorder.

All discussion moderators were African American and had prior qualitative interviewing experience. We used nine moderators: two men and two women. Three father groups were moderated by men. Due to Ladies wants sex Eaton conflicts, no individual moderator staffed all focus groups for a single participant type. Note-takers were all female graduate students who took a 1-hr training session in qualitative note-taking tailored to the project.

The discussion guide for the larger study explored three topics: the process and content of family communication about sex, parental monitoring of adolescent social and dating activities, and participant suggestions for a parent—adolescent communication intervention. The data regarding IPV that are presented here emerged spontaneously without direct or specific questioning.

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Responses emerged from participants as they addressed the first topic. We used a theoretical framework known as the integrative conceptual model Fishbein et al. We did not automatically assume that this framework would be endorsed by participants. Thus, we started discussions with broad questions e. What have you talked to your children about? We deed question probes to explore the salience of concepts from the model. After each study session, moderators and the principal investigator AYA debriefed about the interview process, discussed whether discussion guide revisions were needed, and compared emerging themes to determine whether thematic saturation had been achieved.

Thematic saturation was achieved after the third study session; however, two additional sessions were conducted to confirm that saturation was achieved and because, due to technical errors, no recording was obtained for one adolescent female group. The additional focus groups allowed us to have more adolescent transcripts available Ladies wants sex Eaton textual analysis. We used descriptive statistics to analyze questionnaire data. Focus groups were digitally audio-recorded, transcribed, and entered into Atlas. Ti, a qualitative data management program Atlas.

Transcripts were reviewed for accuracy by a research assistant who compared each to the original audio recording. Transcripts were then reviewed by the moderator and note-taker who had collected the data. IPV and healthy relationships emerged inductively as key topics families frequently discuss. Given that we had not asked specific questions about these topics, and because our conceptual model was not selected to explore these issues, we used a grounded theory approach to content analysis. Our intent was not to develop theory.

Rather, we used the methodological approach to content analysis described by Strauss and Corbin to identify and organize the emergent themes. Our coding process proceeded in three steps.

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First, open coding was performed whereby the written text was reviewed line-by-line by two independent coders to identify a list of words and phrases related to the content and process of family discussions about dating and relationships. Coders then met to compare coded passages and reach consensus that all relevant passages had been identified.

They then Ladies wants sex Eaton axial coding where the broad list of initial words and phrases is reviewed to identify the major themes present. Themes were then defined and organized into hierarchical resulting in a thematic codebook that listed the main themes and subthemes and the definitions for each. Three main themes were identified: motivations for family discussions, content of family discussions, and strategies for socializing adolescents regarding healthy relationships. In the final step, coders independently recoded each transcript using the codebook.

Coders met to review the coded transcripts and resolve discrepancies in the final coding process via consensus. We compared emergent themes between parents and adolescents and across gender. The content of discussions was similar across all 21 transcripts; thus, data from all are reported here. There were participants, including 51 mothers, 17 fathers, 37 adolescent females, and 20 adolescent males.

Of the 52 participating families, 36 had only 1 parent participate a single father and 16 had 2 parents participate; 48 had 1 adolescent participate and 4 had two Ladies wants sex Eaton participants. Family discussions were described as informal, rather than planned or structured events. Three themes emerged. One reflected the chief motivation for family discussions. The remaining two themes pertain to the process of family discussions about IPV and healthy teen relationships. The main motivator for discussions was parental desire to prevent their children from experiencing victimization from sexual molestation, assault, or dating violence.

The two themes regarding the content of family discussions reflected parental strategies for teaching their children how to avoid sexual victimization. First, family discussions were used to convey to children, especially daughters, the importance of self-esteem and self-respect and of demanding respect from romantic partners. Second, parents used various approaches to teach children about healthy and unhealthy relationships. Primarily, they used their own relationships to exemplify healthy relationship characteristics or drew examples of unhealthy relationships from their social environment and the media.

In comparing data between participant types and genders, several distinctions were evident. Adolescents and parents identified a similar range of issues that had been discussed. However, adolescents tended to simply offer that these issues had been discussed without substantial elaboration or reflection.

Parental narratives regarding the topics presented were far more expansive. Parents expressed concern that their children might be affected by dating aggression or frank violence as either victims or perpetrators. Parents, particularly mothers, voiced concerns that daughters could be manipulated by a partner or become a victim of IPV. And Prince Charming just wants to hit that. Parental concerns regarding sons primarily reflected fears that a son might display aggressive behaviors within a relationship.

I want him to respect a girl. Do not force yourself in any type of way. Get off of me. These girls are something else out there. A of parents acknowledged that their concerns stemmed from personal or family experiences with sexual abuse or IPV.

One mother explained:. My first [sexual] experience.

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Urban Adolescent Girls’ Perspectives on Multiple Partners in the Context of the Sexual Double Standard and Intimate Partner Violence