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Male infertility is any health issue in a man that lowers the chances of his female partner getting pregnant. About 13 out of couples can't get pregnant with unprotected sex. There are many causes for infertility in men and women. In over a third of infertility cases, the problem is with the man. This is most often due to problems with his sperm production or with sperm delivery.
The man's body makes tiny cells called sperm. During sex, ejaculation normally delivers the sperm into the woman's body. The male reproductive system makes, stores, and transports sperm. Chemicals in your body called hormones control this. Sperm and male sex hormone testosterone are made in the 2 testicles. The testicles are in the scrotum, a sac of skin below the penis. When the sperm Please laidies cum Low Head this out the testicles, they go into a tube behind each testicle. This tube is called the epididymis.
Just before ejaculation, the sperm go from the epididymis into another set of tubes. These tubes are called the vas deferens. Each vas deferens le from the epididymis to behind your bladder in the pelvis. There each vas deferens s the ejaculatory duct from the seminal vesicle. When you ejaculate, the sperm mix with fluid from the prostate and seminal vesicles.
This forms semen. Semen then travels through the urethra and out of the penis. Male fertility depends on your body making normal sperm and delivering them. The sperm go into the female partner's vagina. The sperm travel through her cervix into her uterus to her fallopian tubes. There, if a sperm and egg meet, fertilization happens. Making mature, healthy sperm that can travel depends on many things. Problems can stop cells from growing into sperm.
Problems can keep the sperm from reaching the egg. Even the temperature of the scrotum may affect fertility. These are the main causes of male infertility:. Sperm problems can be from traits you're born with. Lifestyle choices can lower sperm s. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking certain medications can lower sperm s.
Other causes of low sperm s include long-term sickness such as kidney failurechildhood infections such as mumpsand chromosome or hormone problems such as low testosterone. Damage to the reproductive system can cause low or no sperm. About 4 out of every 10 men with total lack of sperm azoospermia have an obstruction blockage within the tubes the sperm travel through. A birth defect or a problem such as an infection can cause a blockage. Varicoceles are swollen veins in the scrotum. They're found in 16 out of of all men. They are more common in infertile men 40 out of They harm sperm growth by blocking proper blood drainage.
It may be that varicoceles cause blood to flow back into your scrotum from your belly. The testicles are then too warm for making sperm. This can cause low sperm s. For more information please refer to the Varicoceles information. Retrograde ejaculation is when semen goes backwards in the body. They go into your bladder instead of out the penis. This happens when nerves and muscles in your bladder don't close during orgasm climax. Semen may have normal sperm, but the semen is not released from the penis, so it cannot reach the vagina.
Retrograde ejaculation can be caused by surgery, medications or health problems of the nervous system. s are cloudy urine after ejaculation and less fluid or "dry" ejaculation. Sometimes a man's body makes antibodies that attack his own sperm. Antibodies are most often made because of injury, surgery or infection. They keep sperm from moving and working normally. We don't know yet exactly how antibodies lower fertility.
We do know they can make it hard for sperm to swim to the fallopian tube and enter an egg. This is not a common cause of male infertility. Sometimes the tubes through which sperm travel can be blocked. Repeated infections, surgery such as vasectomyswelling or developmental defects can cause blockage. Any part of the male reproductive tract can be blocked. With a blockage, sperm from the testicles can't leave the body during ejaculation. Hormones made by the pituitary gland tell the testicles to make sperm.
Very low hormone levels cause poor sperm growth. Sperm carry half of the DNA to the egg. Changes in the and structure of chromosomes can affect fertility.
For example, the male Y chromosome may be missing parts. Certain medications can change sperm production, function and delivery. These medications are most often given to treat health problems like:. Causes of male fertility can be hard to diagnose. The problems are most often with sperm production or delivery.
Diagnosis starts with a full history and physical exam. Your health care provider may also want to do blood work and semen tests.
Your health care provider will take your health and surgical histories. Your provider will want to know about anything that might lower your fertility. These might include defects in your reproductive system, low hormone levels, sickness or accidents. Your provider will ask about childhood illnesses, current health problems, or medications that might harm sperm production.
Such things as mumps, diabetes and steroids may affect fertility. Your provider will also ask about your use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other recreational drugs. He or she will ask if you've been exposed to radiation, heavy metals or pesticides.
Heavy metals are an exposure issue e. All of these can affect fertility. Your health care provider will learn how your body works during sex. He or she will want to know about you and your partner's efforts to get pregnant. For example, your healthcare provider may ask if you've had trouble with erections. The physical exam will look for problems in your penis, epididymis, vas deferens, and testicles. Your doctor will look for varicoceles. They can be found easily with a physical exam. Semen analysis is a routine lab test. It helps show the level of sperm production and whether sperm are functioning well e.
The test is most often done at least twice, if sperm s are abnormal. Semen is collected by having you masturbate into a sterile cup. The semen sample is studied. It can be checked for things that help or hurt conception fertilization. Your health care provider will study your sperm volume, count, concentration, movement "motility"and structure. The of the semen analysis tests tells about your ability to conceive start a pregnancy.
Even if the semen test shows low sperm s or no sperm, it may not mean you are permanently infertile. It may just show there's a problem with the growth or delivery of sperm. More testing may be needed. Even if no sperm are seen on a semen analysis, then treatment may be possible. Your health care provider may order a transrectal ultrasound.
Ultrasound uses sound waves bouncing off an organ to get a picture of the organ. A probe is placed in the rectum. It beams sound waves to the nearby ejaculatory ducts. The health care provider can see if structures such as the ejaculatory duct or seminal vesicles are poorly formed Please laidies cum Low Head this out blocked.
If a semen test shows a very low of sperm or no sperm you may need a testicular biopsy. This test can be done with general or local anesthesia. A small cut is made in the scrotum. It can also be done in a clinic using, a needle through the numbed scrotal skin. In either case, a small piece of tissue from each testicle is removed and studied under a microscope.
The biopsy serves 2 purposes. It helps find the cause of infertility and it can collect sperm for use in assisted reproduction such as in vitro fertilization; IVF. The health care provider may check your hormones. This is to learn how well your testicles make sperm. It can also rule out major health problems. For example, follicle-stimulating hormone FSH is the pituitary hormone that tells the testicles to make sperm. High levels may mean your pituitary gland is trying to get the testicles to make sperm, but they won't. Treatment depends on what's causing infertility.
Many problems can be fixed with drugs or surgery. This would allow conception through normal sex. The treatments below are broken into 3 :. It's not common, but can be caused by:. Drugs are often tried first to treat this condition. If they fail, there are several option. Sperm may also be retrieved directly from the testicle with a needle Testicular Sperm Aspiration. Rectal probe electroejaculation is most often done under anesthesia. This is true except in men with a damaged spinal cord.Please laidies cum Low Head this out
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