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Annual Review of Environment and Resources. Human interactions with wildlife are a defining experience of human existence. These interactions can be positive or negative. People compete with wildlife for food and resources, and have eradicated dangerous species; co-opted and domesticated valuable species; and applied a wide range of social, behavioral, and technical approaches to reduce negative interactions with wildlife.

This conflict has led to the extinction and reduction of numerous species and uncountable human deaths and economic losses. Recent advances in our understanding of conflict have led to a growing of positive conservation and coexistence outcomes. I summarize and synthesize factors that contribute to conflict, approaches that mitigate conflict and encourage coexistence, and emerging trends and debates. Fertile areas for scholarship include scale and complexity, models and scenarios, understanding generalizable patterns, expanding boundaries of what is considered conflict, using new tools and technologies, information sharing and collaboration, and the implications of global change.

The time may be ripe to identify a new field, anthrotherology, that brings together scholars and practitioners from different disciplinary perspectives to address human—wildlife conflict and coexistence. Homo sapiens have competed with other species for habitat and resources and have innovated and adapted to become the dominant ecological force on the planet 1.

This conflict has contributed to the extinction of numerous species 2 ; changes in ecosystem structure and function 3 ; and immeasurable loss of human life, crops, livestock, and property 24. The amelioration and mitigation of this conflict is central to the conservation and Sex Dating in Carbon hill AL Adult parties of many species, and debates over how and whether to coexist with other animals drive social, economic, and political conflict within and among human communities 25.

The challenges of human—wildlife conflict are older than recorded history but an interdisciplinary field of study focused on human—wildlife conflict and coexistence, although still relatively new, is growing rapidly. Over the past 20 years, the of scientific publications addressing human—wildlife conflict and coexistence has increased almost exponentially Figure 1. Figure 1. In this review, I synthesize the current state of scholarship on human—wildlife conflict and coexistence.

I define key concepts, describe the importance of conflict, place it in evolutionary and historical context, examine broad of conflict, characterize factors influencing conflict and responses to conflict, and identify future research needs. This topic is too large to cover all aspects of conflict in depth, so I focus particular attention on large vertebrates and human—wildlife conflict in the context of wildlife conservation.

Human—wildlife conflict is commonly described as conflict that occurs between people and wildlife 2 ; actions by humans or wildlife that have an adverse effect on the other 4 ; threats posed by wildlife to human life, economic security, or recreation 6 ; or the perception that wildlife threatens human safety, health, food, and property 7.

The term wildlife is defined broadly as nondomesticated plants and animals 8although domesticated and feral animals are sometimes included in the human—wildlife conflict literature. Wildlife damage management is defined as the science and art of diminishing the negative consequences of wildlife while maintaining or enhancing their positive aspects 8and is often synonymous with human—wildlife conflict mitigation 28.

Numerous scholars point out that the notion of human—wildlife conflict is complicated by underlying tensions from human—human conflicts over conservation and resource use 279 Another complication is that human interactions with wildlife are often framed negatively even if important positive benefits—recreational, educational, psychological, and ecosystem services—exist As a result, there is a growing convergence around the phrase human—wildlife conflict and coexistence to connote the recognition of both problems and solutions 21012although some authors question whether coexistence is more precisely co-occurrence Human—wildlife conflict has ificant consequences for human health, safety, and welfare, as well as biodiversity and ecosystem health.

Impacts on humans can be direct or indirect. Human injury and death can result when animals Sex Dating in Carbon hill AL Adult parties, claw, gore, or otherwise directly attack people; during collisions between animals and automobiles, trains, planes, boats and ships, and other vehicles; and from the transmission of a zoonotic disease or parasite 4. Conflict with wildlife can cause direct material and economic damage to crops, livestock, game species, and property 214 — Indirect impacts of conflict, more difficult to measure, include opportunity costs to farmers and rangers associated with guarding crops or livestock, diminished psychosocial wellbeing, disruption of livelihoods, and food insecurity 212141517 Human—wildlife interactions vary on a continuum from positive to negative, in intensity from minor to severe, and in frequency from rare to common 11; see also Figure 2.

Attacks on people by apex predators such as tigers, lions, and sharks are now relatively infrequent but the attacks can be lethal and lead to strong public reactions 2. Conversely, conflict between people and common garden pests or birds such as geese may be more common but provoke less concern.

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Conflict frequency can also be highly variable within and among geographic regions. Some households or farms within a community may suffer little damage whereas neighbors may experience a surplus killing event in which a predator may kill many animals in one attack 12or some properties may be better protected than others.

Figure 2. The most extreme biological impact is extinction. Hundreds of terrestrial and marine vertebrate species have become extinct in recorded history, and populations of many remaining species have declined in abundance The decline of large, predatory animals in particular has resulted in cascading ecological consequences for other species and ecosystem services 20and many of these declines are linked to conflict with humans.

Human evolution is fundamentally a story of human interactions with other wildlife. Early hominids may have experienced selection for predator avoidance such as effective vigilance, social adaptations such as formation of small Sex Dating in Carbon hill AL Adult parties for protection, and intelligence to eventually develop technologies such as weapons to reduce the threat of predation 22 Modern vertebrates represent those that survived environmental changes and competition with early hominids Expansion of early human populations coincided with major changes in large vertebrate abundance.

Our earliest historical records document close interactions with wildlife. Early cave paintings on multiple continents show people interacting with wildlife Efforts to protect crops and fellow humans from wildlife are known from the earliest records in ancient civilizations of Egypt, the Indus River Valley, China, Greece, and in the Christian Bible 4. Records exist of elephant Elephas maximus crop raiding in Asia as early as BC The spread of agriculture led to new technologies such as poisons, repellents, and traps to reduce wildlife damage 4. In modern times, governments developed laws and policies to address wildlife conflict.

Laws were established as early as in Scotland to control bird damage, and some of the earliest laws passed in the new American colonies were bounties to eradicate wolves Canis lupusfoxes Vulpes vulpesand birds 4. Kingdoms and colonial empires often supported predator eradication efforts because of the danger posed by wild animals. Tens of thousands of people have been reported killed and injured by tigers in Asia and countless tigers have been killed in retaliation Entire species have been vilified because of conflict with humans.

Government support for control and eradication programs continued in many areas well into the twentieth century 1629 Real and perceived conflict with wolves led to their eradication from large areas of Europe and the continental US Other species such as coyotes Canis latrans and red foxes were more resilient, adapted better to human persecution, and expanded in spite of these control efforts Thus, a common theme from prehistory to modern history is that human populations evolved and expanded by competing effectively with wildlife for space and resources, eradicating or diminishing individual wildlife populations or entire species that posed the most serious threats, and trying to minimize threats and damage from those species that survived.

In recent decades, this pattern has shifted as growing awareness about the value of biological diversity and the emergence of better information, tools, laws and institutions, and new values encouraged more creative ways to manage wildlife using a coexistence model and encouraging conservation of wildlife populations 26. Human—wildlife conflict and coexistence occurs with species that are rare and protected, abundant and considered pests, heavily managed or even domesticated, and occur in diverse ecosystems.

Not surprisingly, much scholarship in the human—wildlife conflict literature has focused on species of conservation concern 229 A major challenge of modern conservation is how to balance the protection of endangered species with the needs of local communities so resolution of conflict is an important element of many conservation strategies 2.

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The following examples illustrate the broad spectrum of taxa, locations, and impacts for common types of human—wildlife conflict. Animal size is often a good predictor of conflict because large predators and herbivores can injure and kill people and livestock.

Many human—wildlife conflict studies have focused on terrestrial species or amphibious species such as crocodilians that use terrestrial, aquatic, and sometimes brackish habitats. People around the world have expressed deep hostility toward large carnivores because of real and perceived impacts on human health and livelihoods 6 Felids and canids are particularly at risk for conflict with people because of their large home ranges, large physical size, and dietary requirements 29 Globally, at least two dozen species of terrestrial carnivores commonly prey on nine common species of livestock Humans have persecuted, extirpated, and caused severe range reduction of wolves in Asia, North America, and Europe, jaguars Panthera onca in the Americas, lions Panthera leo and wild dogs Lycaon pictus in Africa, and tigers Panthera tigris in Asia Herbivores and omnivores.

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A wide variety of animals, including species in the order Proboscidea elephants and Artiodactyla e. Large vertebrate herbivores can cause conflict with people by trampling, directly consuming, and otherwise damaging vegetation of ecological and socioeconomic importance 3. Elephants in particular cause ificant damage to crops and vegetation across Asia and Africa 17 Conflicts between humans and ursids are widespread Brown bears Ursus arctos are one of the world's most widely distributed terrestrial mammals. Brown bears occupy a wide range of habitats and are generalist feeders that consume human-related foods, such as livestock, crops, and beehives All species of bears, particularly large ones such as polar bears Ursus maritimusare known to come into conflict with people, but bear—human conflict in regions such as Asia has received relatively less scholarly attention than felid— and canid—human conflict Conflict is not restricted to the largest or most dangerous animals: numerous smaller vertebrates compete with humans for food and space 4.

Agricultural damage from wild boar Sus scrofa in Europe reaches millions of US dollars annually Numerous reptile species, including hundreds of snake species, come into conflict with humans 8. Crocodilians, including alligators, crocodiles, and caimans, are nonvenomous reptiles capable of causing serious or fatal injuries in humans 4. From throughreports of adverse encounters with alligators and 24 deaths were reported in the United States, and nuisance complaints are increasing as the alligator population increases In Australia, 62 unprovoked attacks by wild saltwater crocodiles between and were reported Although charismatic species such as tigers and wolves receive considerable attention, many abundant species are among the most economically important sources of conflict.

Agricultural pests, biological organisms that are considered harmful to crops or livestock 41are leading causes of agricultural damage. A common pest management approach is to eradicate as many individuals of a species as possible Another common approach is to disperse animals considered pests. An estimated million European starlings eat cattle feed and increase the risk of disease transmission by contaminating feed and water troughs Many agricultural pests are invasive species, including starlings, and hundreds of species, including 92 birds and 32 mammals, are considered exotic in North America alone 8.

Domestic and feral cats and dogs are widely recognized as Sex Dating in Carbon hill AL Adult parties predators, and the world's human-dominated landscapes provide a home for more than million domestic dogs and millions of domesticated cats 44 Dogs and cats can cause conflict through predation on other wildlife, disease transmission, wildlife disturbance, hybridization, and direct attacks on livestock and people. In the United States, free-ranging domestic cats kill an estimated 1.

Wild predators in turn also kill domesticated pets.

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Wolves are known to kill hunting dogs in North America and Europe, resulting in emotional and sometimes economic trauma for dog owners 47 A wide variety of other feral animals are also important sources of conflict. For example, Australia has the world's largest population of feral horses, estimated at more thanindividuals, which in excessive trampling and grazing, impacts on native habitats and species, and conflict with rural populations Human—wildlife conflict is also common and important in the world's oceans.

Marine conflict can take many forms, including direct attacks, bites, stings, and collisions, as well as impacts related to pollution, removal and modification of natural habitat, resource extraction, tourism and recreation, entanglement with fishing gear, and other harvesting activities 51 Large marine vertebrates are well represented in the marine human—wildlife conflict literature. Shark attacks on humans are relatively rare but elicit considerable public media attention. Documented unprovoked shark attacks globally have grown steadily, with each decade having more attacks than the decade sincereaching recorded attacks between and A record 98 confirmed unprovoked attacks were reported worldwide in North America is typically home to the most shark attacks, and the state of Florida typically is responsible for approximately half of the unprovoked attacks in the United States In Australian waters over the past years, there have been documented fatalities and injuries from sharks

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Human–Wildlife Conflict and Coexistence