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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The present study sought to examine Latino intercultural competence via two separate methodologies. Phase 1 entailed discovering and generating themes regarding the features of intercultural competence based on semistructured interviews of 15 Latino adults.

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Phase 2 included conducting a cultural consensus analysis from the quantitative responses of 46 Latino adults to determine the cultural model of intercultural competence. The major indicated that the participants, despite variations in socioeconomic and generational statuses, shared a common knowledge base regarding the competencies needed for Latinos to successfully navigate different cultures. Overall, the cultural model of Latino intercultural competence includes a set of skills that integrates traditional cultural values along with attributes of self-efficacy.

The findings are discussed within a competence-based conceptualization of cultural adaptation and potential advancements in acculturation research.

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Strong waves of immigration along with relatively high birthrates have resulted in large s of Latinos living in the United States. These individuals are faced with having to navigate the mainstream U. In order to successfully negotiate these different cultural contexts, individual must develop a set of skills that promotes effective adaptation.

This process can be stressful, with uncertain ends, and therefore carries a mental health risk. The current study sought to examine the shared knowledge or understanding of Latino intercultural competenceor the skills that facilitate cultural interactions, via a mixed-methods approach. The qualitative portion of the project identified emergent themes, from semi-structured interviews of Latino adults in the community, detailing the features of intercultural competence.

The value of the present research is to clarify the experiences of the Latino group, which has particular ificance to the current U. Although several theoretical advances have been made i. Although newer acculturation scales assess certain behavioral aspects of adaptation, they do not address some of the nuances involved in negotiating different cultures.

However, the nature of these interactions is not typically examined. The repertoire of skills and method by which an individual approaches a social situation is influenced on whether establishing network connections or maintaining supportive friendships is the valued outcome of that cultural contact. Ward has argued that adaptation is, in part, a result of learning the culture-specific skills that are needed to negotiate different cultural contexts.

Ultimately, it is the success or failures of many person-environment interactions that contributes to an individual effectively navigating within and between cultures. In their presentation of an innovative model, Padilla and Perez suggested that cultural competence is one of the pillars of acculturation. Generally speaking, cultural competence, or knowledge about and ability to function in a particular culture, has been thought of as a unique and understudied aspect of cultural adaptation Zea et al. This sub-scale addresses concerns regarding broad areas including social, cultural as well as academic and career competence.

However, a rigorous assessment of the specific skills that define Latino intercultural competence, as described by members of the community, has yet to be conducted. It is necessary to understand the characteristics of intercultural competence, as defined by the Latino community, rather than outlining adaptation strategies that have been drawn from a mainstream frame of reference, as done in work. Historically, qualitative strategies have been the primary method used to discover the characteristics underlying a particular cultural process.

Despite the richness of information obtained from qualitative methods, several limitations have emerged regarding the use of nonsystematic and nonstatistical procedures. Cultural consensus analysis assumes that cultural groups have a shared pool of knowledge distributed across social divisions and identifies this preferred cultural model through a form of reliability testing.

Finally, this analysis identifies the characteristics to a research question or cultural construct by estimating the distribution of the knowledge as it applies to participant expertise Dressler et al. Cultural consensus analysis has been used to examine beliefs about diabetes, AIDS, blood pressure, cervical and breast cancer, pediatric respiratory symptoms, and asthma among Latinos and African Americans Pachter et al.

The purpose of the current project was two-fold: a to discover and generate themes regarding the skills Latinos deem as necessary for successful intercultural interactions and b to derive a cultural model of Latino intercultural competence based on these emergent characteristics. To achieve these aims, qualitative methods were implemented to analyze information from semistructured interviews examining Latino intercultural competence. Then, cultural consensus analysis was conducted on a separate sample of participants to identify the functional elements of Latino intercultural competence.

It was expected that a shared cultural model of Latino intercultural competence would emerge. Fifteen Latino individuals, from a moderately sized Midwestern city, volunteered and were interviewed to get an understanding of the skills necessary to engage successfully in the mainstream U.

Participants were recruited through various community and University-based organizations that focused on or provided services for Latino individuals. Potential participants were identified by leaders in the respective organizations or because of their visible service in the Latino community. Participants were approached, given a brief description of the study, including confidentiality procedures, and invited to be interviewed.

Participants Latino goal family oriented guy looking for you both oral and written consent. Every attempt was made to attain a representative sample of individuals based on age, gender, and generation level.

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The interviews were conducted by the principal investigator or by trained undergraduate research assistants in the language preferred by the participant i. Although participants were encouraged to elaborate on their own experiences, the interview used a semistructured format with questions that prompted specific topic areas. What skills or characteristics does that person have? These questions were chosen to allow the participant to create and identify their own definition of success and explain the features that would allow an individual to achieve such standards.

The typical interview lasted 45 to 60 minutes. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed word for word. Although translating qualitative interviews from the original language may restrict some of the richness of the data, analyzing the responses Latino goal family oriented guy looking for you English allowed for continuity across interviews.

Initially, meaningful units of information, typically several sentences long, were identified that described discrete ideas or events. These units were then compared with each other and gradually grouped together based on shared characteristics to develop concepts. Related concepts were merged into category themes. The research team that analyzed the qualitative data consisted of one Latino the Principal Investigatorone Latina, and two European American women. The worldview and perspectives of the investigators play an important role in the analysis of qualitative data.

Therefore, before the analysis process, the researchers discussed their values, biases, and assumptions. A Latino male served as an auditor by independently reviewing the emergent themes to determine that the adequately represented the information generated by the interviews.

The entire research team then discussed potential disagreements until a consensus was reached. Once these themes describing intercultural competence were established, a list of 36 items was generated corresponding to the features of this construct.

Every effort was made to develop items based on the participant responses. Two statements were later deemed poorly written and deleted bringing the final list to 34 items see Table 1. Following the procedures outlined by Dressler and Bindon and Dressler et al.

Individuals were recruited from various community-based organizations. They were given a brief description of the study, asked to participate, and provided oral and written consent. Participants were asked to rate the list of 34 items see Table 1 as to the importance of these skills to succeed in the U. The ratings were originally based on a 5-point Likert-type scale from 0 not at all to 4 very important. To simplify the cultural consensus analysis, these ratings were later collapsed into a dichotomous variable indicating 0 not important Likert-type ratings of 0—2 and 1 important Likert-type ratings of 3—4.

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Given the extreme similarity between these ratings and to avoid redundancy, the cultural consensus analysis was conducted based on the dichotomous ratings of the intercultural competence items in response to engaging with the mainstream U. The first step in the cultural consensus analysis was to test for a shared cultural model of Latino intercultural competence.

This analysis was conducted using the software program ANTHROPAC, which uses the participant ratings of importance as units of analysis and the informants as variables in a factor analysis. Romney et al. The second step of the cultural consensus analysis involves calculating the level of expertise for each participant.

Averaged across the sample, these calculations give higher weight to participants who have higher cultural expertise. These composite scores are considered to be the shared characteristics of Latino intercultural competence. An advantage of cultural consensus analysis includes the ability to derive estimates of shared knowledge using relatively small s of participant responses Dressler et al.

The 46 participants who volunteered for this portion of the study were recruited to maintain a representative sample based on gender, generation level, and income. Nine individuals reported being the first member of their family to move to the United States while the remaining participants were second generation or later. Nevertheless, the student participants appeared to have a middle-class background based on the University setting in which they were recruited.

The average of years living in the United States was approximately 16 but ranged from 2 to 44 years. For the cultural consensus analysis phase, 46 Latino adults 22 men, 24 women rated the intercultural competence items that were developed from the qualitative potion of the project. Sixteen individuals were members of the first generation to live in the United States while 21 participants were second generation or later. All participants self-identified themselves as Mexican or Mexican American.

The mean of years living in the United States was approximately 12 years but ranged between 2 and 39 years. Thirty-four individuals chose to rate the intercultural competence items in Spanish. Cultural consensus analysis determines the extent to which participants agreed on the features of Latino intercultural competence.

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Cultural consensus analysis indicated that the ratio between the first and second eigenvalues was These reveal that a single factor exists indicating a shared cultural model of Latino intercultural competence in which the majority of participants concur. The average level of cultural knowledge was 0. Discussed below are the themes that emerged from the qualitative content analysis and their level of importance according to the mean participant agreement scores of the cultural consensus analysis. That is, participants talked about the importance of having specific goals and the notion of continuing to better their situation.

An ambitious person is a person that is thinking about accomplishing great things, great goals. These excerpts illustrate the idea that an interculturally competent Latino is successful, in part, by applying an achievement orientation to the adaptation process. That is, Latinos, regardless of whether they are immigrant or U. Some of the participants who were interviewed reported that an essential aspect of successful cultural involved establishing and maintaining Interpersonal Connections.

Within this broader category, individuals spoke of Relationship Building and Networking. Relationship building was defined as the willingness to interact and develop interpersonal connections with both Latinos and non-Latinos. I think a lot of it is the relationship part of it.

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