Added: Lissette Blouin - Date: 06.02.2022 07:09 - Views: 42384 - Clicks: 1602
Partial responsibility for the conflicts and barriers faced by talented women rests with the role confusion and ambivalence our society displays toward talented females and the barrage of conflicting messages which influence females throughout their lives. Examples of this ambivalence are plentiful currently as well as in the past. A letter sent out by the church explained that working mothers neglect their children, damage their marriages, and set a bad example. Over fifty years ago when Pearl S. The conflicts and barriers faced by gifted females involving their own abilities and the external pressures of their world have a direct impact on some of their most difficult decisions.
Recent statistics highlight some of the problems facing talented women. These statistics, of course, tell only part of the story and the story changes frequently. Sincewomen have been losing ground to men in salary Epstein, Inwomen earned just The difference between male and female earnings had been hovering at that level for a generation or so, Epstein reported.
A large of antidiscrimination suits and an influx of women into the work force caused women to gain in salary benefits during the eighties and early nineties.
Bywomen were earning 77 cents for every dollar earned by men. Epstein reported that since then, equity in salaries has been in a downhill spiral. Inwomen were earning only 75 cents for every dollar earned by men and the figure has declined since then to 74 cents.
Epstein also reported that among the Fortune companies, there are only two female CEOs; among the next companies, there are only five female CEOs. In Women at Thirtysomething, a study released by the Office of Education, the educational careers and job market experiences of women who graduated from high school in were studied. Six surveys were conducted between and on a sample of over 22, women. The study found that as a group, women outperformed men academically at every level, had higher grade point averages, completed degrees faster, and developed more positive attitudes toward learning.
At the same time, a much higher percentage of women experienced genuine unemployment than men, regardless of what degree they earned. In only 7 of 33 occupations did women achieve pay equity with men. Women who achieve high levels of success still experience blocks.
Catalyst, a nonprofit group, recently published a study entitled Women and Corporate Leadership that indicated that half of the female executives interviewed about leadership reported that the major obstacles holding women back from top management positions were male stereotyping and preconceptions of women and exclusion from informal networks of communication.
Another area in which statistics have not greatly changed for talented women is academe. Inthe tenure gap was virtually unchanged, at At many of our most prestigious universities and colleges, the percentage of women who reach the rank of full professor is still surprisingly low. The figures for indicate that at Category 1 doctoral granting universities, the percentages of men who reach the level of full professor is At the associate professor level, a discrepancy still exists with At every rank and in every category male professors earn more than female professors, even at the instructor and the lecturer levels Schrecker,p.
Other statistics highlight issues suggesting that barriers which threaten accomplishment by women in general and talented women in particular:. Clearly, while some women have made inro into many diverse areas, many talented women have a long way to go in other occupations. More men than women complete degrees at the bachelors and graduate levels.
A decreasing of women are pursuing formal education for a of reasons. Research by Reis indicates that in most cases fewer women pursue higher education because time- and energy-consuming relationships develop or because parents provided more emotional and financial support for their sons to complete degrees than for their daughters. After children, the single largest poverty group in our country is women over the age of Many factors appear to be detrimental to women in their retirement: their concentration in lower paid and part-time jobs with no retirement benefits, career interruptions to take care of family, and a tendency to avoid risky investments which may have big payoffs.
Recent Studies About Females in General and Gifted and Talented Females in Particular In a study, a random sample of 1, American women aged 18 and older was surveyed by a professional social science research firm American Women, The task most men handle regularly is car maintenance and that is, of course, not a daily chore.
In one study, gifted women reported having an average of thirty minutes each day of free time and indicated that they did most of the household chores despite full-time work for both spouses Reis, a. An interesting paradox emerged in the American Women survey These paradoxes, perhaps, point out the most striking challenges facing women today. Those challenges involve reconciling the gains that working women have made and the happiness gained through careers and the freedom to work, with the losses and guilt they experience. Another interesting statistic that emerged in the survey is the dissatisfaction with life reported by older women in general that is in marked contrast to the reports of older gifted women Descreet sex attractive Independence girl by Reis b who pursued their dreams and talents at a later age.
Women aged in the American Women survey reported major dissatisfactions with their life, saying that as they age, they become increasingly lonely and worried about managing on their own. They are also more likely to be disappointed about the way their lives evolved. The older gifted women Reis studied b described themselves as happy, confident, and satisfied.
This may indicate that differences exist between some older gifted women and the random sample of older women who responded to this survey. The importance of environmental variables on the development of gifted and talented females cannot be overstated. Almost from birth, females find themselves in a world of limiting stereotypes and other barriers to achievement. Research has identified external barriers, which seem to negatively influence the development of talents and gifts in some gifted females.
These barriers include the role of parents, school, and the environment in general. Parental Influences The first set of external barriers gifted women face deals with childhood family issues and statistics, such as and sex of siblings, birth order of siblings, and presence or Descreet sex attractive Independence girl of one or both parents.
Other childhood issues include the parental attitudes toward having and raising girls as opposed to boys. Children usually learn the stereotypical behaviors of their sex at an early age and display particular behavior patterns and play preferences even during preschool years Blaubergs, ; Kirschenbaum, ; Paley, Patricia Casserlyan early researcher in the area of gifted females, indicated that gifted girls were Descreet sex attractive Independence girl frustrated because their parents would not buy them chemistry sets or construction sets as toys.
The study found that as girls get older, their self-esteem drops dramatically. Enthusiastic and assertive at ages 8 and 9, they begin to lose confidence in their abilities at age 13 and 14 and emerge from high school with measurably lowered goals and future expectations. Stereotypical feminine behaviors often conflict with the personal attributes a gifted female needs to succeed. Some parents require, or at a minimum, expect their daughters to be polite, well mannered, and consistently congenial.
According to the stereotype, girls are not supposed to be too independent. Mothers seem to have a particular influence on their gifted daughters. Recent research Reis, has found that talented girls with career-oriented mothers tended to develop a variety of talents and interests early in life and feel less conflict about growing up and becoming independent, autonomous women.
Some gifted girls studied by Reis whose mothers had been at home, however, struggled with ambition and expressed conflicting feelings about work and home. Lashaway-Bokina found similar in her study of Latina American gifted females who had dropped out of high school. Many of the young women she studied were initially content to stay at home with their mothers and watch soap operas in the afternoon. These gifted females encountered confusing messages about their own future and their relationship with their mothers and regarded their own abilities and talent development with ambivalence.
Their love for their mothers caused them to feel unsure about the development of their own talents. Their academic abilities, if developed, would lead to an unequivocally different life from the one in which they currently live and which their mothers would always live. Being different from their mothers and separating themselves, in a of ways, from their families caused fear and tension in these young women. With time, however, some of the young women interviewed by Lashaway-Bokina managed to reconcile some of their problems and return to high school.
Few at this Descreet sex attractive Independence girl, however, have realized their academic potential and pursued post-secondary education. External Events Influencing Creative Development Many factors influence the environmental barriers for talented, creative women. The availability or absence of role models who can help gifted girls realize their potential has been a key issue with gifted females. If women have knowledge of or personal contact with someone who acts as a positive role model, especially in their area of career interest, attaining that career can seem like a much more reasonable goal.
Simonton suggested various external events that may influence creative development including the two issues mentioned above, formal education and role-model availability.
Simonton, whose work has mainly focused on men, also indicated that zeitgeist, political fragmentation, war, civil disturbances, and political instability can all influence creative development. He speculates that a special set of political, social, and cultural events is most conducive to the development of creative potential and concludes that three sociopsychological processes are central to creative development.Descreet sex attractive Independence girl
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External Barriers Experienced by Gifted and Talented Girls and Women