China - Hong Kong sex chat lines

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Hong Kong Macau Tibet. Communist Party members hold almost all top government and security apparatus positions. Xi Jinping continued to hold the three most powerful positions as party general secretary, state president, and chairman of the Central Military Commission.

Civilian authorities maintained effective control of the security forces. Members of the security forces committed serious and pervasive abuses. Genocide and crimes against humanity occurred during the year against the predominantly Muslim Uyghurs and other ethnic and religious minority groups in Xinjiang. Government officials and the security services often committed human rights abuses with impunity. Authorities often announced investigations following cases of reported killings by police but did not announce or findings of police malfeasance or disciplinary action.

There were numerous reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings. In many instances few or no details were available. In Xinjiang there were reports of custodial deaths related to detentions in the internment camps.

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There were multiple reports from Uyghur family members who discovered their relatives had died while in internment camps or within weeks of their release. For example, in October the government formally confirmed to the United Nations the death of Abdulghafur Hapiz, a Uyghur man detained in a Xinjiang internment camp since Authorities executed some defendants in criminal proceedings following convictions that lacked due process and adequate channels for appeal.

Official figures on executions were classified as a state secret. According to the U. There were multiple reports authorities disappeared individuals and held them at undisclosed locations for extended periods. The government conducted mass arbitrary detention of Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, and members of other Muslim and ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang. China Human Rights Defenders alleged these detentions amounted to enforced disappearance, since families were often not provided information about the length or location of the detention.

The exact whereabouts of Ekpar Asat, also known as Aikebaier Aisaiti, a Uyghur journalist and entrepreneur, remained unknown. He was reportedly detained in Xinjiang in after participating in a program in the United States and subsequently sentenced to up to 15 years in prison.

Authorities in Wuhan disappeared four citizen journalists, Chen Qiushi, Li Zehua, Zhang Zhan, and Fang Bin, who had interviewed health-care professionals and citizens and later publicized their s on social media in the midst of the COVID outbreak and subsequent lockdown in Wuhan. Human rights lawyer Gao Zhisheng, who has been disappeared on multiple occasions, has been missing since The government still had not provided a comprehensive, credible ing of all those killed, missing, or detained in connection with the violent suppression of the Tiananmen demonstrations.

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Many activists who were involved in the demonstrations and their family members continued to suffer official harassment. The government made no efforts to prevent, investigate, or punish such harassment. The law excludes evidence obtained through illegal means, including coerced confessions, in certain of criminal cases. There were credible reports that authorities routinely ignored prohibitions against torture, especially in politically sensitive cases.

Numerous former prisoners and detainees reported they were beaten, raped, subjected to electric shock, forced to sit on stools for hours on end, hung by the wrists, deprived of sleep, force fed, forced to take medication against their will, and otherwise subjected to physical and psychological abuse. Although prison authorities abused ordinary prisoners, they reportedly singled out political and religious dissidents for particularly harsh treatment.

Zhang said that detention center authorities handcuffed her, made her wear heavy foot shackles, and placed her in a cell where other inmates beat her. Yu reported he was repeatedly sprayed with pepper spray and was forced to sit in a metal chair for an extended period of time.

As of December, Chang was still under these restrictions and denied access to his family and lawyer. Members of the minority Uyghur ethnic group reported systematic torture and other degrading treatment by law enforcement officers and officials working within the penal system and the internment camps. There was no direct evidence of an involuntary or prisoner-based organ transplant system; however, activists and some organizations continued to accuse the government of forcibly harvesting organs from prisoners of conscience, including religious and spiritual adherents such as Falun Gong practitioners and Muslim detainees in Xinjiang.

An NGO research report noted that public security and other authorities in Xinjiang have collected biometric data—including DNA, fingerprints, iris scans, and blood types—of all Xinjiang residents between 12 and 65 years of age, which the report said could indicate evidence of illicit organ trafficking. Some Xinjiang internment camp survivors reported that they were subjected to coerced comprehensive health screenings including blood and DNA testing upon entering the internment camps.

There were also reports from former detainees that authorities forced Uyghur detainees to undergo medical examinations of thoracic and abdominal organs. The government continues to claim that it had ended the long-standing practice of harvesting the organs of executed prisoners for use in transplants in The treatment and abuse of detainees under the liuzhi detention system, which operates outside the judicial system as a legal tool for the government and CCP to investigate corruption, featured custodial treatment such as extended solitary confinement, sleep deprivation, beatings, and forced standing or sitting in uncomfortable positions for hours and sometimes days, according to press reports see section 4.

Impunity was a ificant problem in the security forces, including the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of State Security, and the Ministry of Justice, which manages the prison system. Conditions in penal institutions for both political prisoners and criminal offenders were generally harsh and often life China - Hong Kong sex chat lines or degrading. Physical Conditions: Authorities regularly held prisoners and detainees in overcrowded conditions with poor sanitation.

Food often was inadequate and of poor quality, and many detainees relied on supplemental food, medicines, and warm clothing provided by relatives when allowed to receive them. Prisoners often reported sleeping on the floor because there were no beds or bedding.

In many cases provisions for sanitation, ventilation, China - Hong Kong sex chat lines, lighting, and access to potable water were inadequate. The lack of adequate, timely medical care for prisoners remained a serious problem, despite official assurances prisoners have the right to prompt medical treatment. Prison authorities at times withheld medical treatment from political prisoners. Political prisoners were sometimes held with the general prison population and reported being beaten by other prisoners at the instigation of guards.

Some reported being held in the same cells as death row inmates. In some cases authorities did not allow dissidents to receive supplemental food, medicine, and warm clothing from relatives. Conditions in administrative detention facilities were similar to those in prisons. Deaths from beatings occurred in administrative detention facilities. Detainees reported beatings, sexual assaults, lack of proper food, and limited or no access to medical care. In Xinjiang authorities expanded existing internment camps for Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, and other Muslims.

In some cases authorities used repurposed schools, factories, and prisons to hold detainees. She reported women were raped and sexually abused on a daily basis by camp guards and said there was a torture room in the camp basement. In October the government charged Yang Hengjun, an Australian author and blogger who encouraged democratic reform in China, with espionage. He was detained in January then formally arrested in August In a September message to his family, Yang said he had been interrogated more than times, at all hours of day and night, for four to five hours at a time.

Administration: The law states letters from a prisoner to higher authorities of the prison or to the judicial organs shall be free from examination; it was unclear to what extent the law was implemented. While authorities occasionally investigated credible allegations of inhuman conditions, their were not documented in a publicly accessible manner.

Authorities denied many prisoners and detainees reasonable access to visitors and correspondence with family members. Some family members did not know the whereabouts of their relatives in custody. Authorities also prevented many prisoners and detainees from engaging in religious practices or gaining access to religious materials. Independent Monitoring: Authorities considered information about prisons and various other types of administrative and extralegal detention facilities to be a state secret, and the government did not permit independent monitoring. Arbitrary arrest and detention remained serious problems.

The law grants public security officers broad administrative detention powers and the ability to detain individuals for extended periods without formal arrest or criminal charges. Lawyers, human rights activists, journalists, religious leaders and adherents, and former political prisoners and their family members continued to be targeted for arbitrary detention or arrest. The law provides for the right of any person to challenge the lawfulness of his or her arrest or detention in court, but the government generally did not observe this requirement.

Liuzhi detainees are held incommunicado and have no recourse to appeal their detention. While detainee abuse is proscribed by the law, the mechanism for detainees to report abuse is unclear.

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Although liuzhi operates outside the judicial system, confessions given while in liuzhi were used as evidence in judicial proceedings. According to press reports and an August NGO report, liuzhi detainees were subjected to extended solitary confinement, sleep deprivation, beatings, and forced standing or sitting in uncomfortable positions for hours and sometimes days. There were no statistics available for the of individuals in the liuzhi detention system nationwide.

Several provinces, however, publicized these s, including Hubei with 1, and Zhejiang with detained, both in One provincial official head of the liuzhi detention system stated suspects averaged In September following her diagnosis with terminal lung cancer, authorities allowed Pu Wenqing, mother of Sichuan-based human rights activist Huang Qi, detained sinceto speak to her son in a minute video call, the first contact with her son allowed to her after four years of trying. Pu remained under house arrest with no charges filed as of December.

She had been disappeared in after plainclothes security personnel detained her at a Beijing train station. She had petitioned central authorities earlier in to release her detained son for health reasons and poor treatment within his detention center. Following local resistance to a policy announced on August 26 mandating Mandarin be used for some school courses in Inner Mongolia in place of the Mongolian language, several prominent dissidents were either detained or held incommunicado. Ethnic Mongolian musician Ashidaa, who participated in protests against the new language policy, was also detained, and family members and lawyers were not permitted to visit him.

After formally arresting a suspect, public security authorities are authorized to detain a suspect for up to an additional seven months while the case is investigated. After the completion of an investigation, the procuratorate may detain a suspect an additional 45 days while determining whether to file criminal charges. If charges are filed, authorities may detain a suspect for an additional 45 days before beginning judicial proceedings.

Public security officials sometimes detained persons beyond the period allowed by law, and pretrial detention periods of a year or longer were common. The law stipulates detainees be allowed to meet with defense counsel before criminal charges are filed. The criminal procedure law requires a court to provide a lawyer to a defendant who has not already retained one; is blind, deaf, mute, or mentally ill; is a minor; or faces a life sentence or the death penalty.

This law applies whether or not the defendant is indigent. Courts may also provide lawyers to other criminal defendants who cannot afford them, although courts often did not do so. Lawyers reported ificant difficulties meeting their clients in detention centers, especially in cases considered politically sensitive. The law requires notification of family members within 24 hours of detention, but authorities often held individuals without providing such notification for ificantly longer periods, especially in politically sensitive cases.

In some cases notification did not occur. The criminal procedure law limits this exception to cases involving state security or terrorism, but public security officials have broad discretion to interpret these provisions. Authorities may also prevent defense lawyers from meeting with suspects in these of cases.

Human rights organizations and detainees reported the practice of residential surveillance at a deated location left detainees at a high risk for torture, since being neither at home nor in a monitored detention facility reduced opportunities for oversight of detainee treatment and mechanisms for appeal. Authorities used administrative detention to intimidate political and religious advocates and to prevent public demonstrations. The maximum stay in compulsory drug rehabilitation centers is two years, including commonly a six-month stay in a detoxification center.

The government maintained similar rehabilitation centers for those charged with prostitution and with soliciting prostitution. Arbitrary Arrest: Authorities detained or arrested persons on allegations of China - Hong Kong sex chat lines state secrets, subversion, and other crimes as a means to suppress political dissent and public advocacy.

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These charges, as well as what constitutes a state secret, remained ill defined, and any piece of information could be retroactively deated a state secret. It is unclear what this term means. Authorities also detained citizens and foreigners under broad and ambiguous state secret laws for, among other actions, disclosing information on criminal trials, commercial activity, and government activity.

A counterespionage law grants authorities the power to require individuals and organizations to cease any activities deemed a threat to national security. Failure to comply could result in seizure of property and assets. There were multiple reports authorities arrested or detained lawyers, religious leaders or adherents, petitioners, and other rights advocates for lengthy periods, only to have the charges later dismissed for lack of evidence.

Conditions faced by those under house arrest varied but sometimes included isolation in their homes under guard by security agents.

China - Hong Kong sex chat lines

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Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: China (Includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet)